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Horse

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horse

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horse -

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Horse -

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The player dismounts using the dismount control. Skeleton Horses and Zombie horses are spawned already tame. In Bedrock Edition, Skeleton Horses cannot be equipped with a saddle and can by default, be controlled by the player.

When riding a horse, the hunger bar is replaced by the horse's health in survival or adventure mode. In the Legacy Console Edition, the horse health bar will still be visible on creative.

It uses a slightly different heart texture than the player's health bar. The experience bar is replaced by the horse jump bar.

A player can use any item while riding a horse, including drinking or throwing potions; activating doors or redstone devices; using chests, crafting tables, and furnaces; breaking and placing blocks; and attacking with melee weapons or bows.

A ridden horse will automatically run up any one block high slope. The horse and rider can safely fit through a space as low as 2.

Lower clearance risks suffocating the rider if the rider's head enters a non-transparent block. The horse itself can enter gaps as low as 1.

Horses cannot fit through a 1-block-wide gap. The maximum speed of horses varies between 4. The speed of a horse has no relation to its outward appearance.

Horses are very slow moving backwards, and about as fast as the player when moving sideways. A ridden horse can be made to jump , and holding the control charges for a higher leap.

Horses are not affected by jump boost beacons or potions. The standard dismount control dismounts from the horse, as does going in water deeper than two blocks.

Like the player, horses take fall damage when falling from heights. It is impossible for a player to use a Nether portal while on a horse.

It is possible however, to enter the portal on the horse and then dismount, sending the horse through the portal on its own, or use a lead to position the horse, then push it through the portal.

In Legacy Console Edition , unlike normal horses, a skeleton horse will not dismount the player when it enters water deeper than two blocks; rather, it can be ridden underwater without the skeleton horse running out of air.

When underwater, its running speed and jump will remain the same but it will have a slower rate of descent.

All horses will roam idly, occasionally stopping to rear, swish their tails, or lower their heads as though eating the grass.

Unlike sheep, the eating animation does not actually cause any grass to be consumed. If a player comes near, the horses may turn to look at them.

Any non-undead horse, even a wild one, will allow itself to be attached to a lead without protest.

However, if the player attempts to saddle an untamed horse, it will rear and flail its front hooves. Horses remain passive, even when hit. Normal horses make neighs and whinnies, while donkeys and mules, which use the same audio, emit brays.

Horses, like most mobs, can ride in a minecart and boat. Unlike other passive mobs, horses will slowly regenerate health.

They despawn after 15 minutes if not triggered. When a player comes within 10 blocks, lightning will strike the horse. This lightning cannot start fires or damage nearby entities.

When struck, the skeleton trap horse transforms into a skeleton horseman , a skeleton riding a skeleton horse. It will also spawn three additional skeleton horsemen in the vicinity.

Each skeleton is equipped with an enchanted iron helmet and an enchanted bow, and have damage immunity for 3 seconds after spawning.

Skeleton horsemen move extremely fast and maneuver exactly like skeletons, strafing when attacking and backing up when the player moves towards them.

Adult horses, donkeys, and mules can be tamed, but not zombie horses or skeleton horses they are spawned already tame. With an empty hand mount the horse repeatedly; when it no longer bucks the player and shows hearts, it is tamed.

It is necessary to tame a horse in order to breed it, give it equipment, or ride it for any length of time.

Taming depends on the horse's "temper". Horses begin with a temper of 0 out of When a player is riding the horse, a random number 0—99 is chosen.

The horse becomes tame if this number is less than the temper, otherwise the temper is increased by 5 and the player is bucked off. Temper can also be increased by feeding the horse.

While riding an untamed horse, you will hear given a little time a gallop sound, more or less rapid. This gives you a good general idea of the horse's speed.

It is unknown whether there is any indication of jump height before taming. Feeding tamed horses golden apples or golden carrots will activate love mode.

The offspring will be more spindly than their adult versions and will grow progressively larger with time until they reach their full size.

The offspring will not automatically belong to the player who owns its parents. Rather, it will be born as an untamed horse and will need to be tamed after it grows into an adult.

The foal can be fed to make it mature faster. The table below lists the effects of the various foods horses will take.

Zombie and skeletal horses cannot be fed, even if tame. To feed a horse, hold a valid food item and right click on the horse. If the food is invalid, the player will simply mount the horse.

Horses can only be fed when feeding would have an effect, similar to other animals. All horses have three "equine stats" which vary from horse to horse: These stats are created once the horse is born or spawned, and are not affected by food.

When spawned in any way except breeding — for instance, using commands, spawning naturally, spawning as part of a skeleton trap, or using spawn eggs — horses are assigned their stats within certain ranges, specific according to their horse type.

For horses, donkeys and mules, their health ranges from 15—30, but tends towards the average 22— For skeletal and zombie horses, their health is always Displayed hearts are health, divided by two, rounded down.

A horse with an non-even number of health points 15, 17, 19, etc. You may strike a horse to test this. If the horse has lost one fewer health point than the inflicted damage and did not regenerate, it has an odd number of health points, otherwise it has an even number of health points.

For horses, their speed ranges from 0. For donkeys and mules, their speed is always 0. The player's normal walking speed is 0. The speed listed does not include any status effect that affects the speed of a horse or a player.

A horse's maximum speed is See also transportation to compare the speeds of various transportation methods.

For horses, skeletal horses and zombie horses, their jump strength ranges from 0. For donkeys and mules, their jump strength is always 0. A jump strength of 0.

The following derived equation can be use to calculate a horse jump height from its jump strength attribute with an rss of 5.

This function was fit to the data found in the table below and is therefore most accurate around these values. The exact jump strengths, to 15 digits, required to clear several block heights are listed below.

When breeding two horses, the foal's stats are determined by averaging both parent's stats with a third set, randomly determined as above i.

Random values are used for the third set even when the value is not normally randomized for the type of horse being bred.

Horses have entity data associated with them that contain various properties of the mob. Their entity IDs are: Horse entities have variant fields that determine the markings on the horse.

Below is a list of Variant values that determine the variant of horses. Summoning a horse entity without specifying the Variant value, or using a Variant value that is not a true ID all true IDs are displayed on the chart above , will result in a white horse.

Issues relating to "Horse", "Foal", "Donkey", "Mule", "Skeleton horse", "Undead horse", or "Zombie horse" are maintained on the bug tracker. Image posted by Jeb on Instagram.

Note the saddle usage. Horses can wear armor and can be bound to fence posts. The first image of the donkey chest inventory. The original horses from Dr.

A horse also has no muscles in its legs below the knees and hocks, only skin, hair, bone, tendons , ligaments , cartilage , and the assorted specialized tissues that make up the hoof.

The critical importance of the feet and legs is summed up by the traditional adage, "no foot, no horse". The exterior hoof wall and horn of the sole is made of keratin , the same material as a human fingernail.

The hoof continually grows, and in most domesticated horses needs to be trimmed and horseshoes reset, if used every five to eight weeks, [65] though the hooves of horses in the wild wear down and regrow at a rate suitable for their terrain.

Horses are adapted to grazing. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors, a type of canine teeth called "tushes".

Some horses, both male and female, will also develop one to four very small vestigial teeth in front of the molars, known as "wolf" teeth, which are generally removed because they can interfere with the bit.

There is an empty interdental space between the incisors and the molars where the bit rests directly on the gums, or "bars" of the horse's mouth when the horse is bridled.

An estimate of a horse's age can be made from looking at its teeth. The teeth continue to erupt throughout life and are worn down by grazing.

Therefore, the incisors show changes as the horse ages; they develop a distinct wear pattern, changes in tooth shape, and changes in the angle at which the chewing surfaces meet.

This allows a very rough estimate of a horse's age, although diet and veterinary care can also affect the rate of tooth wear.

Horses are herbivores with a digestive system adapted to a forage diet of grasses and other plant material, consumed steadily throughout the day.

Therefore, compared to humans, they have a relatively small stomach but very long intestines to facilitate a steady flow of nutrients. Horses are not ruminants , they have only one stomach, like humans, but unlike humans, they can utilize cellulose , a major component of grass.

Horses are hindgut fermenters. Cellulose fermentation by symbiotic bacteria occurs in the cecum , or "water gut", which food goes through before reaching the large intestine.

Horses cannot vomit , so digestion problems can quickly cause colic , a leading cause of death. The horses' senses are based on their status as prey animals , where they must be aware of their surroundings at all times.

Their sense of smell , while much better than that of humans, is not quite as good as that of a dog.

It is believed to play a key role in the social interactions of horses as well as detecting other key scents in the environment.

Horses have two olfactory centers. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors.

The second, located under the nasal cavity, are the Vomeronasal organs , also called Jacobson's organs. These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones.

A study in the UK indicated that stabled horses were calmest in a quiet setting, or if listening to country or classical music, but displayed signs of nervousness when listening to jazz or rock music.

This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels. Horses have a great sense of balance, due partly to their ability to feel their footing and partly to highly developed proprioception —the unconscious sense of where the body and limbs are at all times.

The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, [79] and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains.

Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food.

All horses move naturally with four basic gaits: These include the lateral rack , running walk , and tölt as well as the diagonal fox trot.

Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened.

Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors.

However, through selective breeding, some breeds of horses are quite docile, particularly certain draft horses. Horses are herd animals , with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare.

They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans.

They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming , and body language.

Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses.

Studies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system.

They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning.

They can learn using habituation , desensitization , classical conditioning , and operant conditioning , and positive and negative reinforcement.

Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural.

One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations.

Horses are mammals , and as such are warm-blooded , or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals.

However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature.

For example, the "hot-bloods", such as many race horses , exhibit more sensitivity and energy, [96] while the "cold-bloods", such as most draft breeds , are quieter and calmer.

They are bred for agility and speed. Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as "cold bloods", as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people.

Today, the term "Warmblood" refers to a specific subset of sport horse breeds that are used for competition in dressage and show jumping.

The term was once used to refer to breeds of light riding horse other than Thoroughbreds or Arabians, such as the Morgan horse. Horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down.

In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a " stay apparatus " in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing.

A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger.

Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest. Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down.

Horses must lie down to reach REM sleep. They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements.

The horse adapted to survive in areas of wide-open terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants , could not.

All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, [] known informally as splint bones.

Thus proto-horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America.

By about 15, years ago, Equus ferus was a widespread holarctic species. A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated.

Therefore, most "wild" horses today are actually feral horses , animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals.

The Przewalski's horse Equus ferus przewalskii , named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky , is a rare Asian animal.

It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse; Mongolian people know it as the taki , and the Kyrgyz people call it a kirtag. The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between and , while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world.

In , it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos. The tarpan or European wild horse Equus ferus ferus was found in Europe and much of Asia.

It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in , when the last captive died in a Russian zoo. Attempts have been made to recreate the tarpan, [] [] [] which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses.

Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic.

For example, the Riwoche horse of Tibet was proposed as such, [] but testing did not reveal genetic differences from domesticated horses.

Besides the horse, there are six other species of genus Equus in the Equidae family. Horses can crossbreed with other members of their genus.

The most common hybrid is the mule , a cross between a "jack" male donkey and a mare. A related hybrid, a hinny , is a cross between a stallion and a jenny female donkey.

Domestication of the horse most likely took place in central Asia prior to BC. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world.

The first source is based on palaeological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains.

The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan , dating to approximately — BC.

Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of present-day horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and palaeological excavations.

The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse, [] [] while many mares were part of early domesticated herds.

There are very low levels of Y-chromosome variability, [] [] but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA. Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed.

One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication.

Feral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals. There are also semi-feral horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in "wild" conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands.

Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights. The concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times.

Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called "thoroughbreds". Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a "purebred" is a horse or any other animal with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry.

These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been selectively bred since their domestication.

An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin , who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines.

Breeds developed due to a need for "form to function", the necessity to develop certain characteristics in order to perform a particular type of work.

One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed.

Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. The genetic makeup of the human population in a geographical area is affected by the presence or absence of horses more variation in Africa, less in Eurasian steppes.

Societies where horse riding is an integral part of life have developed traditional attires specially suited for horse riding such as tightly wrapping waistbands or cummerbunds giving wide support useful for protecting the spine during long journeys, and voluminous headgear such as turban to protect the skull during falls from the horse.

Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes. The Food and Agriculture Organization FAO estimates that in , there were almost 59,, horses in the world, with around 33,, in the Americas, 13,, in Asia and 6,, in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania.

There are estimated to be 9,, horses in the United States alone. Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity; [] to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control.

Historically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle.

Many sports, such as dressage , eventing and show jumping , have origins in military training , which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider.

Other sports, such as rodeo , developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations.

Sport hunting from horseback evolved from earlier practical hunting techniques. All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport.

The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat.

Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions. Examples include show jumping , dressage , three-day eventing , competitive driving , endurance riding , gymkhana , rodeos , and fox hunting.

They host a huge range of classes, covering all of the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as "In-hand" classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation.

The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider.

Although the horse requires specialized training to participate, the details of its performance are not judged, only the result of the rider's actions—be it getting a ball through a goal or some other task.

Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world. There are three types: There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them.

For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control. They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas.

Horses are quieter than motorized vehicles. Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective.

In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses.

Horses have been used in warfare for most of recorded history. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between and BC, [] and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age.

Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur. Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes.

Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles.

Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events.

Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature. They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories.

People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from association with horses. Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence.

In hippotherapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills.

Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave.

Horses are raw material for many products made by humans throughout history, including byproducts from the slaughter of horses as well as materials collected from living horses.

Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols , who let it ferment to produce kumis.

Drinking their own horses' blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat.

Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages. It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures, [] and a subject of political controversy in others.

Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue. Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture.

Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier , as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Domesticated four-footed mammal from the equine family. For other uses, see Horse disambiguation.

Linnaeus , [1]. Equine coat color , Equine coat color genetics , and Horse markings. Equine anatomy , Muscular system of the horse , Respiratory system of the horse , and Circulatory system of the horse.

Skeletal system of the horse. Horse hoof , Horseshoe , and Farrier. Equine digestive system and Equine nutrition.

Horse gait , Trot horse gait , Canter , and Ambling. Horse behavior and Stable vices. Draft horse , Warmblood , and Oriental horse.

Horse sleep patterns and Sleep in non-humans. Evolution of the horse , Equus genus , and Equidae.

History of horse domestication theories and Domestication of the horse. Horse breed , List of horse breeds , and Horse breeding.

Equestrianism , Horse racing , Horse training , and Horse tack. Horses in art and Horse worship. Hippotherapy and Therapeutic horseback riding.

Equine nutrition , Horse grooming , Veterinary medicine , and Farrier. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.

Johns Hopkins University Press. Opinion Case ". Archived from the original on Retrieved 12 September Horse Anatomy 2nd ed.

Complete Equine Veterinary Manual.

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Records indicate that a stock of Arab and Barb horses was introduced into England as early as the 3rd century. Conditions of climate, soil, and water favoured development, and selective breeding was long encouraged by those interested in racing.

Under the reigns of James I and Charles I , 43 mares, the Royal Mares, were imported into England, and a record, the General Stud Book , was begun in which are inscribed only those horses that may be traced back to the Royal Mares in direct line or to only three other horses imported to England—the Byerly Turk imported in , the Darley Arabian after , and the Godolphin Barb also known as the Godolphin Arabian, imported about The English Thoroughbred has since been introduced to most countries, where it is bred for racing or used to improve local breeds.

The Thoroughbred has a small fine head, a deep chest, and a straight back. Its legs have short bones that allow a long easy stride, and its coat is generally bay or chestnut, rarely black or gray.

Asian breeds were strongly influenced by Arabian or Persian breeds, which together with the horses of the steppes produced small plain-looking horses of great intelligence and endurance.

A Persian stallion and a Dutch mare produced the Orlov trotter in , named after Aleksey Grigoryevich , Count Orlov, the owner of the stud farm in Khrenovoye, Russia, where the mating took place.

The matings produced a horse larger than the Arabian and smaller than the Thoroughbred, of easy maintenance, and capable of carrying considerable weight in the saddle.

Its coat is generally chestnut or bay. A powerful long-bodied horse, the Standardbred was developed during the first half of the 19th century and can be traced largely to the sire Messenger , a Thoroughbred imported from Britain in and mated to various brood mares in New York, New Jersey , and Pennsylvania.

The American Quarter Horse was bred for races of a quarter of a mile and is said to descend from Janus, a small Thoroughbred stallion imported into Virginia toward the end of the 18th century.

It serves as a polo pony equally well as for ranch work. The Morgan horse originated from a stallion given to Justin Morgan of Vermont around This breed has become a most versatile horse for riding, pulling carriages , farm labour, and cattle cutting.

It was the ideal army charger. It stands about 15 hands Its coat is dark brown or liver chestnut. The Appaloosa is There are various breeds of spotted horses in Europe and Asia, and the actual source of the spotting pattern in the Appaloosa is uncertain.

American breeders have also developed several horses that have specialized gaits. The American Saddlebred horse has a small head and spectacular high-stepping movements.

It is trained for either three or five gaits. The three-gaited horses perform the walk, trot, and canter; the five-gaited horses in addition perform the rack, a quick, high-stepping four-beat gait, and the slow gait, a somewhat slower form of the rack.

Since these horses are used mainly for shows, their hooves are kept rather long, and the muscles of the tail are often clipped so that the base of the tail is carried high.

Chestnut and bay are the usual colours. The Tennessee Walking Horse —a breed derived partially from the Thoroughbred, Standardbred, Morgan, and American Saddlebred horse—serves as a comfortable riding mount used to cover great distances at considerable speed.

Its specialty is the running walk, a long and swift stride. Bay is the most common colour. The Missouri Fox Trotting Horse , a breed developed to cover the rough terrain of the Ozark region, is characterized by an unusual gait, called the fox-trot, in which the front legs move at a walk while the hind legs perform a trot.

The most common colours for this breed are sorrel and chestnut sorrel. The English Hackney is a light carriage horse, influenced by the Thoroughbred and capable of covering distances of 12 to 15 miles 19 to 24 km per hour at the trot and canter.

The Cleveland Bay carriage horse, up to 17 hands about Both breeds are now used for the equestrian event of carriage driving. Other versatile breeds include the German Holstein, Hanoverian, and East Prussian Trakehner , which serve equally well for riding, light labour, and carriage.

These horses, 16 to 18 hands about The Andalusian, a high-stepping spirited horse, and the small but enduring Barb produced the Lipizzaner , which was named after the stud farm founded near Trieste, Italy, in Originally of all colours, the Lipizzaner is gray or, now exceptionally, bay.

It is small, rarely over 15 hands Intelligence and sweetness of disposition as well as gracefulness destined it for academic horsemanship , notably as practiced at the Spanish Riding School of Vienna.

The horses used for heavy loads and farm labour descended from the ancient war horses of the Middle Ages. They usually measure well over 16 hands about They are of all colours, sometimes spotted, and generally have a very calm temperament.

Many of these breeds are rare and endangered at present. Ponies are any horses other than Arabians that are shorter than They are generally very sturdy, intelligent, energetic, and sometimes stubborn.

The coat is of all colours, mainly dark, and the mane and tail are full. Ponies of the warmer countries include the Indian, Java, Manila, and Argentina.

Originating in the South Tyrol , the Haflinger is a mountain pony, enduring, robust, and versatile, used for all farm labour, for pulling a carriage or sledge, and for pack hauling.

It is chestnut with a flaxen mane and tail. Some breeds of ponies, such as the Caspian, are short but have the body proportions of a horse instead of the shorter legs relative to body size of the true ponies of northern Europe.

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Gus Cothran Alois Wilhelm Podhajsky. Sep 25, See Article History. Page 1 of 2. Next page Evolution of the horse. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Because it was not possible to maintain a breed of war-horses sufficiently powerful to sustain mounted shock action, the horse was restricted to a subsidiary role in warfare from the eclipse of the chariot in the middle of the 2nd millennium bce until the….

The earliest horses appeared during the early Eocene in Europe and North America. Some species of these little forest-dwelling, browsing animals were no larger than a terrier.

The introduction of the horse had a profound effect on the material life of the Plains peoples. Horse s greatly increased human mobility and productivity in the region—so much so that many scholars divide Plains history into two periods, one before and….

Europeans began to breed both the specialized warhorse, adding stirrups to provide the mounted warrior a better seat and greater striking force, and the draft horse, now shod with iron horseshoes that protected the hooves from the damp….

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback.

You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.

At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control.

They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas. Horses are quieter than motorized vehicles. Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective.

In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses.

Horses have been used in warfare for most of recorded history. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between and BC, [] and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age.

Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur. Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes.

Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles.

Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events.

Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature. They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories.

People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from association with horses. Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence.

In hippotherapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills.

Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave.

Horses are raw material for many products made by humans throughout history, including byproducts from the slaughter of horses as well as materials collected from living horses.

Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols , who let it ferment to produce kumis.

Drinking their own horses' blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat. Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages.

It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures, [] and a subject of political controversy in others.

Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue. Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture.

Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier , as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Domesticated four-footed mammal from the equine family. For other uses, see Horse disambiguation.

Linnaeus , [1]. Equine coat color , Equine coat color genetics , and Horse markings. Equine anatomy , Muscular system of the horse , Respiratory system of the horse , and Circulatory system of the horse.

Skeletal system of the horse. Horse hoof , Horseshoe , and Farrier. Equine digestive system and Equine nutrition.

Horse gait , Trot horse gait , Canter , and Ambling. Horse behavior and Stable vices. Draft horse , Warmblood , and Oriental horse.

Horse sleep patterns and Sleep in non-humans. Evolution of the horse , Equus genus , and Equidae. History of horse domestication theories and Domestication of the horse.

Horse breed , List of horse breeds , and Horse breeding. Equestrianism , Horse racing , Horse training , and Horse tack.

Horses in art and Horse worship. Hippotherapy and Therapeutic horseback riding. Equine nutrition , Horse grooming , Veterinary medicine , and Farrier.

Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Opinion Case ". Archived from the original on Retrieved 12 September Horse Anatomy 2nd ed. Complete Equine Veterinary Manual. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

Archived from the original on January 20, American Endurance Riding Conference. Horses and Tack Revised ed. United States Equestrian Federation.

Archived from the original PDF on See McBane , pp. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. L; Bailey, E; Bellone, R.

F; Biagi, T; Binns, M. Equus caballus - Description". The Complete Horse Care Manual. Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics.

Communications Services, Oklahoma State University. Revolution in Horsemanship and What it Means to Mankind. Montana State University eXtension.

Problems of Limbs in young Horses". Storey's Guide to Training Horses: Ground Work, Driving, Riding.

The Horse Second ed. Archived from the original on September 9, Horses' Teeth and Their Problems: Prevention, Recognition, and Treatment.

Nathan Jeffery, co-author, University of Liverpool. A Complete Guide to Equine Safety. Retrieved 23 January The Essentials of Horsekeeping. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

Pet Column July 24, Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved 8 January A Natural Approach to Horse Management.

True horsemanship through feel. Ed Kept to Himself part 1 ". The Everything Horse Care Book. Large Animal Internal Medicine Second ed.

The Nature of Horses. Fossil Horses in Cyberspace. Florida Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History. Horses Through Time First ed.

Zoological Society of London. Oregon couple revives prehistoric Tarpan horses". Retrieved September 1, The Case of the Mule's Foal". Breakthroughs in Ecology, Technology, Science, and Politics.

Quirks and Quarks Podcast with Bob Macdonald. Horse Breeding and Management. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Journal of Archaeological Science. Retrieved 17 January The Evolution of Human-Equine Relationships.

The Domestication of the Horse". Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on May 25, World Arabian Horse Organization. Archived from the original on 5 July Structure, Soundness and Performance.

Food and Agriculture Organization. Economy" PDF Press release. Archived from the original PDF on June 25, The History of Equestrian Sports".

Learn More about horse. Resources for horse Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared. Dictionary Entries near horse hors concours hors d'oeuvre hors de combat horse horse's ass horse's neck horse about.

Time Traveler for horse The first known use of horse was before the 12th century See more words from the same century. More Definitions for horse.

English Language Learners Definition of horse. Kids Definition of horse. More from Merriam-Webster on horse Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for horse Spanish Central: Translation of horse Nglish: Translation of horse for Spanish Speakers Britannica English: Translation of horse for Arabic Speakers Britannica.

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